The Fatherland Liberation War r in the 1950s was an all-people resistance put up by all the army and people of Korea against the US imperialist aggressors. Lots of fierce battles were fought to defend even an inch of land, a single tree and a blade of grass. The unprecedented war finally ended in victory for the Korean people who fought the aggressors even at the cost of their blood and lives. The spiritual mainstay that supported the Korean army and people during the war was their firm conviction that they would win without fail as they were led by Supreme Commander Kim Il Sung who was endowed with great courage, matchless military stratagem, perfect leadership art and lofty benevolence.
Resolute Decision, Instant Counteroffensive
On June 25, 1950 it was drizzling from dawn. Supreme Commander Kim Il Sung got up early and was reading a document, when the phone rang, breaking the stillness of the morning. The Supreme Commander lifted the receiver, from which an anxious voice came saying that the enemy launched a massive cannonade all along the 38th parallel and at the same time started an offensive.
“The enemy has unleashed a war at last…” the Supreme Commander said in a low voice, with a serious look. He instantly called an extraordinary meeting of the Cabinet of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. A touch-and-go atmosphere pervaded the place of the meeting. Then the silence was broken by a resonant voice.
“…The enemy is utterly absurd. The Yankees have mistaken us Koreans,” Kim Il Sung said, entering the place. The tense atmosphere vanished instantly.
At the meeting he delivered a historic speech Let Us Wipe out the Invaders by a Decisive Counteroffensive. He said that the country and people now faced a great danger and that the Korean people found themselves in the midst of a serious crisis whose outcome would decide whether they would become colonial slaves of imperialism again, or remain free people belonging to an independent and sovereign state. And he stressed that they should resolutely fight the enemy in order to safeguard the independence of the motherland and the freedom and honour of the nation. Looking up at the Supreme Commander, the participants in the meeting, who had been so apprehensive, now felt refreshed with confidence, the fighting spirit of annihilating the enemy rising up in them.
In accordance with the Supreme Commander’s resolute decision the country returned an immediate counteroffensive for the enemy’s sudden invasion.
Tunnel Tactics Repels Ten-million-strong Foe
In early 1952 the ruling circles of the US were continuing to feed troops into the Korean front while making its domestic economy more militarized and extensively increasing the war expenditure.
The US imperialists withdrew to Japan the First Cavalry Division and the 24th Infantry Division of the US that had been beaten to a pulp in the Korean front, and instead hurled the 40th and 45th infantry divisions—that had been in training in Japan— from the end of 1951 to the beginning of 1952. They also brought lots of fighter bombers into south Korea from Japan.
Supreme Commander Kim Il Sung, as a positive measure to frustrate the enemy’s desperate schemes of aggression, put forward the policy of further strengthening defence positions with tunnels as the mainstay, scrupulously organizing defence battles, and further activating military actions in battles so as to constantly decrease and weaken the manpower and technical equipment of the enemy. Accordingly, units and combined units of the People’s Army in the front and the rear vigorously pushed ahead with excavation of tunnels. As a result there were established a firm positional defence system based on tunnels to suit the mountainous topography of Korea, and by relying on the tunnels the People’s Army soldiers could securely defend their positions, and successfully repulse the enemy’s attack in all defence areas.
None of the enemy’s war methods worked before the People’s Army’s defence positions reinforced with tunnels. In 1952 alone the US aggressors mobilized lots of planes and guns to shower over 4 000 bombs and over 500 000 shells on average per one kilometre in the area with Height 1 211 as its centre and strafed the area one thousand and several hundred times. Nevertheless, the People’s Army dealt a staggering blow to the enemy by dint of positive defence battles based in tunnel positions while reliably protecting its manpower, weapons and combat equipment
Master Plan for Postwar Rehabilitation and Construction
One early morning in the middle of February 1951, just a few days after the US imperialists committed heinous aerial bombing over the city of Pyongyang, Supreme Commander Kim Il Sung looked round some streets. Then, he asked officials concerned what they thought was important to newly build the city after the war. Saying that it would be too late if they prepared the project after victory in the war, he instructed that the preparation be immediately started. He continued to say that the city had previously been uncultured and deformed and that it had been totally devastated by the US imperialists’ air raids. He suggested that they should remove the ruins and build a new Pyongyang as a large, modern and cultured city.
Several days later he summoned urban designers to his office at the Supreme Headquarters. Advising them to begin at once to make preparations for the rehabilitation of the destructed city, he said that after their victory in the war they should turn the city more magnificent and beautiful than before so as to demonstrate the mettle of the Koreans in rehabilitation and construction as well.
A few months after that the designers, called by the Supreme Commander, went to his office, bringing a master plan for rehabilitation and construction of Pyongyang they had prepared at his instruction. They explained the design to him. Pointing to some places on the plan, he told them to set nice leisure areas, pleasure grounds for the working people and playgrounds for children.
Thanks to Kim Il Sung’s sagacity and wise guidance, beautiful and magnificent streets in Pyongyang, the land of victors, were planned and designed during the fierce war.
Article: Hong Ok Ju