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Three lessons have passed and you should know the Korean alphabet, pronunciation of words and three of six sound change cases. Now it is the time for you to learn rest of them, and then we will start learning Korean more practically. Are you ready?

It is worth to remind now that in Korean language sounds change in six different ways. After reading and learning the previous lesson, you could know the assimilation of sounds, shut consonants and the strenghtening of the sound. Now you will learn about the insertion of a sound, the omission of a sound and contraction of sounds.

1. The Insertion of a sound

The insertion of a sound means that a sound is inserted when a word is pronounced.

There are two methods of insertion:

1.1 The consnant ㄴ (n) is inserted

For example:

부옄일 [puoknil] — kitchen work

Goes:

[부옄닐] [puoknil] (as a result of the insertion of the cosonant ㄴ (n))

And we read as: [부엉닐] [puongil] as a result of the assimilation the sonant ㄴ (n)

1.2 The consonant ㄷ is inserted

For example:

기발 [kibal] — flag

Goes:

[긷발] [kitbal] as a result of the insertion of the consonant ㄷ

And we read as:

[긷빨] kitbal] as a result of the strenghtening of the soft sound ㅂ(b) after the voiceless sound ㄷ (t)

2. The omission of a sound

The omission of a sound means that a certain omitted when sounds are linked.

There are 2 methods of omission.

2.1 Method one:

The sound ㅎ [h] of a stem is not pronounced before ending or a suffix which begins with a vowel. Here are some examples:

많았다 [manhatda] — were much

Goes:

[마낟다] [manatda] as a result of the omission of the sound ㅎ [h] before the past tense ending 았 [at] which begins with the vowel ㅏ [a]]

And we read as:

[마낟따] [manatda] as a result of the strenghthening of the sound ㄷ [d]

 

많이 [manhi] — much

We read as

[마니] [mani] as a result of the omission of the sound ㅎ [h] before the suffix 이 [o] which begins with the vowel ㅣ [i]

2.2 Method two

The penultimate or the last consonant in a syllable is omitted.

2.2.1 The penultimate consonant ㄹ [l] in a syllable is omited when the penultimate and last consonants ㄹㄱ [lk], ㄹㅁ [lm], ㄹㅂ [lp] or ㄹㅍ [lp] in a syllable come before another consonant or at the end of a word

Examples:

닭 – [talk] — hen

We read:

[닥] [tak] as a result of the omission of the penultimate consonant ㄹ [l]

 

삶다 [salmda] — cook

Goes:

[삼다] [samda] as a reslult of the omission of the penultimate consonant ㄹ [l]

And we read:

[삼따] [samda] as a result of the strenghthening of the sound ㄷ [d]

 

밟다 [palpda] — tread

Goes:

[밥다] [papda] as a result of the omission of the penultimate consonant ㄹ [l]

And we read:

[밥따] [papda] as a result of the strenghthening of the sound ㄷ [d])

 

읊다 [ulpda] — recite

Goes:

[읍다] [upda] as a result of the omission of the penultimate consonant ㄹ [l]

And we read:

[읍따] [upda] as a result of the strenghthening of the sound ㄷ [d]

 

2.2.2 The last consonant in a sllable is omitted when it is a lingual

For examples:

없다 [optda] — there is no

As the last consonant ㅅ [t] is a lingual, it is omitted:

[업다] [opda] as a result of the omission of the last consonant ㅅ [t]

and we read:

[업따] [opda] [opda] as a result of the strenghthening of the sound ㄷ [d]

3. The contraction of sounds

The contraction of sounds means that some sounds standing side by side contract into the one sound.

There are two methods of contraction:

3.1 Sounds contract into a strong sound

A soft sound and the sound ㅎ [h] following it contract into a strong sound

For example:

역할 [yokhal] — role

We read:

[여칼] [yokal] as a result of the contraction of the sounds ㄱ [k] and ㅎ [h]

3.2 Two vowels contract into a new vowel

Example:

아이 [ai] — child

애 [ae] — child (as a result of the contraction of the vowels ㅏ[a] andㅣ[i]